There are two levels of probate:
Informal probate covers estates that require no court supervision or adjudication due to their clear, undisputed nature and simplicity. This procedure allows the personal representative to accept full responsibility for promptly, completely, and legally probating the estate with only minimal court oversight. Typically, the personal representative can act more quickly to divide the property under this process, with the probate court giving final approval once the estate is fully distributed. Personal representatives may apply for informal probate, but should be aware of the possible legal liability for mistakes that their acceptance of the procedure involves.
Formal probate applies to more complex or contested estates, and involves court supervision of distribution. The probate court supervises the personal representative on each legal step he or she takes to administer the estate, adding substantial time to the process. The personal representative may post a bond to guarantee his or her performance and to protect the estate’s creditors. The court may need to hear and resolve conflicting claims to the estate assets, or even find heirs when they are not apparent. The court scrutinizes each distribution. While this procedure takes far more time, it is indispensable when disputes and complex issues are involved.
Most personal representatives hire a lawyer to help them with at least some of their duties, even in informal probates. While making a will does not prevent the need for probate, a carefully drafted will minimizes the time a personal representative spends in court and speeds up the distribution of property to survivors.